Analysis of Firm Location and Relocation around Maryland andWashington, DC Metro Rail Stations

The 4th International Seminar of Committee of Infrastructure Planning and Management, JSCE in FY2014
2014年度土木計画学研究委員会 第4回国際セミナー(通算 第97回国際セミナー)

Title: Analysis of Firm Location and Relocation around Maryland andWashington, DC Metro Rail Stations

Transportation investments can have substantial impacts on the location of social and economic activities by changing the overall level of accessibility. Changes in the amount and location of activities lead to different levels of economic development among locations. Particularly, transit oriented development (TOD) has been touted as a catalyst to stimulate local economic development and increase property values, as well as integrating transportation and land use, promoting mixed land uses, and making transit and pedestrian travel more viable. While a few studies have found that rail transit proximity and TOD are associated with a higher concentration of firms and employment in particular industries, such as finance, insurance, and real estate (FIRE) industries, and these claims need more evidence based on solid empirical research.

We have been working to examine the impacts of rail station investments on the geographic distribution of firms in selected industries with a strong presence in the region, including FIRE industries. We are currently working on a descriptive analysis part that seeks to address three key questions about the effects of station proximity: 1) What is the overall distribution of firms in relation to metro station locations? 2) What industries, if any, are more likely to locate near transit stations? 3) Whether Metro station openings have a substantial effect on the distribution of firms across the region? 4) Does a new transit station result in a net gain of firms within the station proximity and for the region or does it merely redistribute existing firms?

We apply GISs, statistics, and economic development analysis method to examine the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) dataset within the Washington DC region (comprising Washington, DC, Montgomery and Prince George’s Counties in Maryland and covering the 66 stations of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Metro service). The NETS dataset contains longitudinal and cross-sectional firm-level data for the years 1990 – 2010, which allow us to look at changes in number of firms within relatively small geographic areas around Metro stations, several of which were constructed during the 21 year period. The NETS dataset also provides firm-level relocation information for the same time period to assess firm movement within and outside of the study area as they relate to transit stations. (Please note that this study is working in progress, and I will present results that we have obtained so far.)

講演者:Dr Hiroyuki Iseki, Assistant Professor, School of Architecture, Planning & Preservation, University of Maryland, College Park(メリーランド 大学カレッジパーク校講師)